Unveiling structure

Next generation particle analysis

Process monitoring - Online product clearance - Research & development

Fast structure determination via simultaneous measurement of mass and size.

Discover femtoG Contact us

Do you wish to ...

  • speed up your product clearance?
  • control particle structure online during production?
  • measure agglomerate stability?
  • obtain product characteristic tailored to your needs?

Why femtoG?


Multidimensional dataset


Only minutes for one scan


Millions of particles analyzed per scan


Variable scan range and resolution

Introducing femtoG fingerprint

femtoG provides a novel and fast method to measure the structural properties of nanoparticles. Adopting aerosol-based measurement concepts, we measure simultaneously the mass and diameter of individual particles. A femtoG scan throughout the entire particle mass and size distribution opens unique insight into a material's structure.

How heavy is a nanoparticle? Why does it matter?

The term nanoparticle is derived from a length-scale 10-9 m, but a 1-dimensional metric can rarely describe complex structured particles to their full extent. Different equivalent diameters, or min/max dimensions are used rendering the comparison of particle size distribution challenging.

However, there is only one mass to describe a particle. The mass is an intrinsic, fundamental and unambiguous property, which makes it an ideal metric for particle size distribution.

Exemplary particles masses of common materials:
Fumed silica: 1-10 fg
Tire-grade Carbon Blacks: 1-6 fg
Recovered Carbon blacks: 6-12 fg
Titanium dioxide pigments: 100 fg
femtoG uses the electrical mobility analysis to measure the geometric dimensions of a particle. Unlike other diameter estimates the mobility diameter it is not affect by the material density and refractive index. Combining the particle mass and diameter distributions gives unique insight into the structure of the material.

To evaluate a sample we determine the change in the density and mass in the interquartile range - the femtoG fingerprint. The femtoG fingerprint gives an intuitive overview of the mass distribution, the density (≈ porosity-1) and fractality of the material.

Changes in the fingerprint allow for resolving the impact of a process on the particle structure. Further products, such as, the number of particles per gram or the size of a mono-particle layer help to translate changes on the nano-scale to the real world application.


Lab analysis

Offline analysis of an individual sample (ideally > 25g needed, as powder or beaded) in our labs. Individual sample report featuring mass, density, and size distribution details (optionally: data interpretation upon delivery).

➜ See sample requirements
➜ See example report

Process monitoring

Continuous online monitoring of the production process at a time resolution of < 15 minutes. This methodology is currently under development, femtoG welcomes industry partners for the planning of on site pilots.

➜ Become a pilot partner

Research projects

Personalized projects tailored to answer your specific research problem. Make use of femtoG's experience in aerosol characterization to boost your business.


Make use of the experience of femtoG in aerosol sciences, data interpretation, as well as in the planning and execution of custom research projects.


"By taking the mass perspective, femtoG has greatly helped us to understand the physical impacts of our refinement process on the sizes and densities of the aggregates of the rCB produced by the G3C method. The discussions with the experienced team were invaluable and are definitely recommended." - March 7 2023

Vitaly Khusidman G3C Dr. Vitaly Khusidman
Founder and CEO of G3C Technologies Corporation

"The femtoG measurement technique is currently tested for characterization of titanium dioxide products. First results show that the simultaneous measurement of particle size and effective agglomerate density opens a promising new viewpoint for product characterization." - April 3 2023

Thomas Koch KRONOS Thomas Koch

Our Partners

Our Team

We are a young startup based in Zurich, Switzerland. Using our extensive background in aerosol research, we are thriving to change the status quo of powder analysis with innovative aerosol technology solutions.

Franz Friebel

Franz Friebel

Co-founder, Dr. sc. ETH Zürich LinkedIn
Jörg Wieder

Jörg Wieder

Co-founder, Dr. sc. ETH Zürich LinkedIn
Omar Girlanda

Omar Girlanda

Intern, Bsc. ETH Zürich LinkedIn

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